September 2022 | Eurobio


We often hear that breakfast is the most important meal of the day and that three healthy balanced meals a day is ideal for better digestion and sufficient to obtain the nutrients we require. However, these healthy eating habits are sometimes neglected especially among people with hectic lifestyles. Oftentimes, food that requires less preparation time such as processed food or easy-to-go meals will be their choice of food, and processed food are normally low in nutritional value while high in salt and sugar. In some low-income communities, people may settle for foods that are higher in calories as they often lack access or do not have the means to afford healthier foods. This will lead to higher risk of chronic diseases and poor energy levels. In this post, we will be discussing common and effects of unhealthy eating habits and how they will impact our lives.

How Does Food Affect Our Body?

Our body needs a lot of nutrients to function and keep us well. The easiest way to obtain the nutrients and fuel we need is through food. Eating well with good nutrients will help to increase our energy levels. It will also minimize risk factors of unhealthy eating habits such as getting diseases like type two diabetes, heart diseases and stroke, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. At the same time, it will also affect our mood, sleeping pattern and mental health. Different types of food contain different types of vitamins and minerals therefore it is important to incorporate meals with a variety of nutrients in our daily lives.

What Is Poor Nutrition?

Poor nutrition can also be classified as undernutrition, which is when we are not getting enough nutrition that we require. We require macronutrients and micronutrients to keep our body healthy, such as carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins and minerals. These nutrients support our vital body functions including growth, our immune system and our nervous system while preventing diseases. People who are suffering from nutrient deficiencies may not know it until it starts showing up in signs and symptoms.

Common signs of people with poor nutrition include:

  • Lack of energy and feeling tired all the time
  • Unintentional weight loss or having low body weight
  • Excessive weight gain or being obese
  • Poor concentration
  • Having low mood or depression
  • Poor immune system leading to falling sick often and taking longer time to recover

Any person can suffer from undernutrition, but there are certain factors that affect the choice of food that might put one at a higher risk of getting poor nutrition in their diet. Some of the factors that affect the choice of food may include:

  • Education and knowledge

    Level of education can influence our dietary behavior during adulthood. With knowledge on nutritional values of various foods, we can make healthier choices when choosing our meal of the day.

  • Cost and accessibility

    People who are in the low-income groups might have low intakes of fruits and vegetables due to the higher cost of healthier food, resulting in a higher tendency to consume unbalanced diets.

  • Lifestyle

    People with time constraints, especially during a busy schedule will seek out convenience and be more inclined towards ready-to-cook products or processed food rather than cooking meals with natural nutrients. These pre-packed meals usually do not contain all the essential nutrients to fit the body’s needs.

  • Stress

    The influence of stress on food choice is complex because different people react and respond differently under stress. In general, people tend to eat more or eat less than normal when they are in a stressful situation.

What Are The Common Unhealthy Eating Habits?

Most of us have developed certain habits when it comes to eating.  While some habits are good, some might be bad habits without even us noticing.  Here are a few unhealthy types of  eating habits that we might be practicing every day and some recommendations on how to stop these unhealthy habits and take steps to improve our eating practices:

  • Mindless eating 

    Over and under eating are both unhealthy eating habits. Over eating will cause our body to consume extra calories that we do not need and this will lead to weight gain and obesity. Being obese increases our risk of many diseases. Listen to your body and learn to eat when you are physically hungry and stop when you are full.

  • Skipping breakfast 

    Breakfast gives us an energy boost to start a new day after a full night’s rest. Without breakfast, we will feel hungry and tend to overeat later. To overcome this, we can prepare breakfast the night before or something that we can consume on the run.

  • Night time eating

    Eating at night especially snacking is almost never a good idea, especially if you are going on a weight losing journey. Try to brush your teeth after dinner to avoid snacking at night as you will be less inclined to eat again with a newly cleaned mouth.

  • Emotion and stress

    Stress or feeling emotionally down will trigger us to eat even if we are not hungry. In these situations, we should choose some activities that will help us to cope with our emotions and at the same time keep us away from the fridge or kitchen, such as taking a walk, exercising or talking to an empathetic friend.

  • Unhealthy food choice 

    Taking too much junk food and processed food when we are having a busy schedule or skipping a meal or two. Planning meals ahead of time can minimize the need for fast foods and ready-to-go meals.

  • Eating too quickly

    This will cause more bloating and gas, and at the same time we might also be eating more than we need as our brain takes time to catch up with our stomach to feel the fullness. Slow down our eating or take a smaller bite each time, and make sure that we chew our food thoroughly as it helps with digestion too.

  • High sugar liquid intakes

    Soda, juices and other sweet beverages have high sugar content. Consuming too much of these sugary drinks will not only cause weight gain, it will also increase our risk of getting diabetes. Replace these drinks with calories-free options such as water and unsweetened tea.

  • Endless snacking

    Snacking unhealthy food such as chips, candy, etc all the time, especially when feeling stressed, watching TV, working or throughout the day is a bad habit.  If there is a urge to snack, try snacking on healthy snacks such as nuts like almonds, fruit or vegetable bits such as carrot, cucumber, apple, yogurt sticks, etc.

It is not difficult to eat a balanced diet and lead a healthy lifestyle. Generally, a person who eats a selection of food that includes lean protein, fruits, vegetables, complex carbohydrates and adequate water will meet their daily nutritional needs and improve their overall health. However, people with digestive issues or those who are taking certain medications or having certain medical conditions might require additional supplementation to help them get the essential nutrients needed to manage these special conditions. Otherwise, a normal person with no pre- medical condition can easily adopt certain practices to break unhealthy eating habits.


  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, June 3). Improving your eating habits. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved September 8, 2022, from 
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2022, September 8). Poor nutrition. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Retrieved September 9, 2022, from
  • Garone, S., Groth, L., Welch, A., Thurrott, S., Kennedy, K., Rapaport, L., &Petrarca, M. (2022, September 9). 9 bad eating habits and how to break them. Retrieved September 12, 2022, from 

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Skin is the largest organ in our body but often we do not pay too much attention to it. Unhealthy skin conditions such as dull, dry, flaky or patchy skin will not only affect our appearance but also lower our confidence level.  It can also sometimes be a symptom of other more serious health conditions as well.  

 Certain people might apply makeup on a daily basis to cover up the imperfections of the skin especially on their faces but this might lead to other concerns as makeup contains a lot of chemicals and skin-unfriendly components that can cause irritation and itchiness.  

Oftentimes, health conditions such as nutritional deficiencies and hormonal imbalance can also make achieving healthy skin more challenging.  Therefore, it is important to be more cautious of our skin conditions and practice healthy skin habits. In this post we will be looking at some healthy habits to achieve radiant-looking skin naturally and also keeping our skin healthy. 

What is Radiant Skin? 

Unlike other measurable skin concerns such as wrinkles and acnes, skin radiance is relatively subjective. Generally, radiant skin has the ability to reflect light, making skin look glowing, smooth and luminous, indicating a reflection of good health. It will also have a relatively even tone and elastic skin texture, giving out this healthy-looking glow. 

What Causes Healthy Glowing Skin? 

Healthy glowing skin is a reflection of good health and a healthy body. Children and young adults tend to have glowing and radiant skin because their skin cells turnover rate is higher. Skin will look dull when rough, dead skin cells pile up.  

Certain people may be more likely to have dull skin due to their genetics. Unhealthy habits such as smoking, poor hygiene, using harsh chemicals and an unhealthy diet that lacks antioxidants will make our skin look dull and speed up aging. There are also certain daily routines that we may not think about that can also add up to damage over time such as excessive exposure to sunlight, lack of sleep and stress. 

How You Can Get Radiant Skin Naturally? 

If we want to achieve glowing and vibrant skin that looks young and feels nourished, a balanced diet and healthy lifestyle should always be our first priority. Staying active and keeping skin hydrated is also crucial to maintain a healthy looking skin. Below are some of the good practices that we can adhere in our daily life to support glowing and radiant skin: 

  1. Wear sunscreen daily

    Wearing sunscreen daily is the easiest way to protect our skin appearances and health at any age. Ultraviolet (UV) rays from the sun damage cells from oxidative stress and the release of free radicals. This will lead to pigmentation and premature aging. Applying sunscreen regularly will protect our skin from sunburn, skin cancer and premature aging.

  2. Avoid smoking

    Chemicals present in tobacco will damage collagen in our skin, which are the building blocks that provide strength and elasticity to our skin. It will also cause oxidative stress to our skin, which leads to premature aging. Smoking will also reduce the oxygen supply to our skin.

  3. Practice good skin cleaning routine

    Wash your face at least twice a day, or whenever needed. Good hygiene practice is important to remove dirt and bacteria and to keep our skin healthy. Perspiration will cause irritation to the skin therefore it is important to wash our skin as soon as possible after sweating as well. Choose a gentle, non-abrasive cleanser that does not contain alcohol and cleanse your skin gently. Excessive scrubbing will irritate our skin and accelerate skin aging. 

  4. Apply moisturizer

    Apply moisturizer after washing your skin, especially if your skin is dry or itchy. Apply gently to avoid pulling on delicate skin. 

  5. Increase your water intake

    Drinking enough water is important for our vital organs, plus it helps to maintain our skin health. One of the signs of healthy skin is hydrated skin that looks supple and taut while giving off a slight shine under natural light. Poor water intake can result in dehydration and drier skin, which will in turn cause dullness in appearance. 

  6. Eat healthily

    Good nutrients will result in good health, which will also reflect on our skin condition. Eating a healthy, well-balanced diet that contains healthy skin nutrients such as proteins, omega-3 fatty acids, Vitamin A, Vitamin C and Zinc can have an impact on overall skin health and appearances. Food that contains these nutrients includes fatty fishes, avocados, tomatoes, bell peppers, broccoli and various fresh fruits and vegetables. On the other hand, try to avoid processed food, especially those that contain high amounts of sugar, as a diet with high sugar content can accelerate aging. 

  7. Take supplements

    Sometimes, nutrients from food are insufficient for us to achieve the skin complexion that we desire. Taking supplements for glowing skin, especially antioxidants will help us to achieve radiant skin. Glutathione, which is an antioxidant that is normally produced by our body, helps in achieving healthy radiant skin and an even skin tone. However, the level of Glutathione will drop due to aging, stress and free radical damages. Therefore, it is important for us to replenish the Glutathione that is lost and to restore healthy looking skin. Vitamin C also helps to promote glowing skin as it is an important factor for collagen synthesis. 

  8. Stress management

    Stress hormones can contribute to skin damages such as acne and aging. Besides, chronic stress can lead to serious health problems, and some people might turn to substance abuse such as alcohol or drugs to manage their stress, which will then worsen our skin condition. Practice relaxation techniques to manage your stress well. 

  9. Get enough sleep

    Insufficient rest especially at night will put our body in stress and produce large quantities of stress hormones. This will trigger inflammation throughout our body, resulting in skin damages. 

  10. Limit the consumption of alcohol

    Frequent and excessive drinking can lead to several problems of the skin. Alcohol will cause the dehydration of the skin, which will also worsen or aggravate other skin conditions. 

  11. Active lifestyle

    Exercise can promote blood circulation and thus be able to carry nutrients throughout our body. It also promotes our body’s natural process of flushing out toxins.

Having changes in diet and lifestyle habits are some of the ways that you can achieve radiant skin naturally. However, people with underlying skin conditions such as hyperpigmentation issues, signs of skin infections, persistent rashes and pain should always seek advice immediately from healthcare professionals or dermatologists who can recommend the best options for you. 


  • Dixon, S. (2019, April 17). How to get your skin to glow from the inside out. Healthline. Retrieved August 20, 2022, from  
  • Face washing 101. American Academy of Dermatology. (n.d.). Retrieved August 23, 2022, from  
  • MediLexicon International. (n.d.). How to get glowing skin: 11 tips for diet, skin care, and more. Medical News Today. Retrieved August 18, 2022, from

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Bones are important elements in our body that are responsible for the movement of our body. Our bones work together with our joints, connective tissues and muscles to support our body weight, helping us to stand upright and to do everyday movement. Bones degenerate as we grow older.

With an increasing aging population and longer life span worldwide, osteoporosis which is a commonly known bone condition affects more people as they grow older. It is found that osteoporosis is more common among women, but it can affect men too. According to the International Osteoporosis Foundation, 1 in 3 women and 1 in 5 men worldwide suffer from osteoporosis over the age of 50 or experience osteoporotic fractures in their lifetime.

Although osteoporosis is a serious condition, it can be treated and also be prevented via healthy lifestyle and diet. In this article, we will be looking at the causes of osteoporosis and the common symptoms and discuss a few ways to manage, or even better, to prevent osteoporosis.

What is Osteoporosis? 

Osteoporosis is a disease that will cause bones to weaken and will form fragile bones with less bone mass and strength. Since bone is a living tissue, it is constantly being broken down and replaced. If the creation of new bones does not keep up with the loss of old bones, osteoporosis will occur.   

Fragile bones will more likely break or fracture even just from a mild stressor such as bending over or coughing. This will increase the risk of a sudden or unexpected bone fractures, most commonly affecting the bones of hips, wrist and spine. 

Why is Knowing about Osteoporosis Important? 

Bone fractures due to osteoporosis are not only painful; in serious cases it can also cause life-changing disability and loss of independence. Statistics have shown that osteoporosis will result in more days spent in hospital as compared to other diseases such as diabetes and heart attack. Prolonged hospitalization will incur additional medical costs which will not only be a burden to the healthcare system but also cause a financial strain on the patients. The patient may no longer be able to work or have reduced available days to work and support themselves due to hospitalization.  This may even lead to requiring financial assistance from their relatives and friends, and might lead to a direct economic loss. 

Bone fracture involving the bones of the hip or spine is the most serious complication of osteoporosis. Statistics have shown that hip fracture causes the most death, where up to 20%-24% of patients die in the first year after hip fracture. Even if patients survive from hip fractures, they are at risk of losing their independence, unable to walk independently and require assistance to carry out their daily activities such as driving or grocery shopping. Some may require nursing home care and as this is often not covered by medical insurance, it will become a heavy financial commitment. 

Besides affecting patients physically, fractures due to osteoporosis will also affect sufferers emotionally and mentally as it reduces their overall quality of life. Long-term loss of independence and mobility will often cause depression and a lack of self-worth. They will tend to isolate themselves from friends and family members, reduce social interaction and no longer want to do the activities they used to love or used to enjoy. This is why it is so important to notice the early warning signs and symptoms of osteoporosis and address it early enough to prevent fractures from happening. 

What are the symptoms of osteoporosis? 

Osteoporosis is often called a “silent disease” as many people do not notice that they are having osteoporosis since it has no obvious symptoms, until it is too late. Most people actually find out they have osteoporosis when they have a fall or suffer from a fracture. 

 Although no obvious symptoms can be determined, there are a few warning signs that may indicate that your bones are weak and fragile. Bones breaking easily, brittle fingernails, weaker grip strength and receding gums may be early warning signs of osteoporosis. As for later-stage osteoporosis, the most common warning signs are presentation of height loss and a curved spine. Some people may also suffer from lower back pain. This is because people who suffer from osteoporosis will have low bone mineral density and spinal fractures can occur even without a fall. These spinal fractures are compressed due to the force of gravity and cause the spinal column to become shorter, resulting in back pain, loss of height and a hunched forward posture.  

Who is at risk of osteoporosis? 

Although osteoporosis particularly affects women in their middle and later years, it can happen to anyone as men are also affected. Many factors can increase the likelihood but some of the risks which are unchangeable are: 

  • Age. Osteoporosis is a common problem for aged people.  Bone mineral density will decrease when we age and this will increase bone fragility. Commonly, risk increases after mid-30s. 
  • Family history. Osteoporosis does run in the family as there might be inherited factors involving bone development. If one or both parents have had a broken bone, there is a risk that some of the children may inherit the condition. 
  • Gender. Females are more likely to get osteoporosis than men especially after menopause. This is because the hormones, namely estrogen and testosterone play an important role in maintaining bone mass and strength in both genders. After menopause, the level of estrogen will drop and this will result in acceleration in bone mass loss. 
  • Body frame size. People with a smaller body frame size will have less bone mass than those who have a larger body frame. Thinner and lighter bones will have a higher risk of bone fractures. 
  • Medical condition. Risk of osteoporosis will also be higher if you have certain medical problems. People with hyperthyroidism will have higher than normal thyroid hormone levels in their body. Thyroid hormones affect the rate of bone replacement. If the rate of bone loss is faster than the rate of bone production, patients will have a higher risk of developing osteoporosis. 

Besides unchangeable factors, other dietary and lifestyle factors can also increase your risk of getting osteoporosis: 

  • Low calcium intake. Bones are made up of calcium and calcium is an important mineral needed during bone production. If the amount of calcium is inadequate in our blood, our body will take the calcium from our bones. People who lack calcium for a long time will have a reduction in bone density, early bone loss and increased risk of fractures 
  • Leading a sedentary lifestyle. Physical activities act as a stimulus for our body to produce strong bones. Without regular exercise, sedentary adults are at risk of thinning and aging bones. Loss of muscle mass will also occur with inactivity and this will expose the bones to higher impact forces with less support by the muscles and bones will become easier to break. 
  • Excessive alcohol consumption. Studies have indicated that heavy alcohol consumption especially during adolescence and young adulthood can affect bone health and may increase the risk of osteoporosis later. 
  • Taking certain medication. Long-term steroid use will have a major impact on bone density as steroids have a major effect on how our body uses calcium and vitamin D. This interference of bone building process will lead to bone loss, fractures and osteoporosis. 
  • Eating disorder. Low bone mass is common in people with eating disorders. People with eating disorders tend to eat very little to limit their calories intake. Most often their diet will lack nutrients such as essential vitamins and minerals to maintain a healthy body, including minerals that are needed for bone production. This will increase their fracture risks. 

The good news is that these osteoporosis risk factors are modifiable and measures can be taken to reduce your risk of getting osteoporosis. 

How to prevent Osteoporosis? 

There are many measures and lifestyle changes for the prevention of osteoporosis.  Here are some recommendations to help reduce the risk of fractures and to prevent osteoporosis, at whatever age and whichever gender, male or female. 

  • Staying active. Weight-bearing and strength training exercises are best for your bones as they make you more flexible and make your bones stronger, reducing the chance of fall and fractures. 
  • Increase your intake of calcium. Having a healthy and balanced diet every day which includes calcium rich food such as milk, green leafy vegetables and salmon is important to maintain strong and healthy bones.  Consider taking calcium supplements if you are not getting sufficient calcium from your diet. 
  • Get some sun.  We obtain most of our vitamin D from the sun and since vitamin D helps our body to absorb calcium, it will help to promote bone density. 
  • Reduce the intake of alcohol. Drink alcohol in moderation as excessive consumption of alcohol will increase our risk of getting osteoporosis. 
  • Preventive fall hazard. Remove tripping hazards, install non-slipping mats and install brighter light bulbs are some of the ways that we can prevent falls and reduce the risk of fractures. 

Osteoporosis, although a serious condition; can be prevented with an early diagnosis by assessing the bone mineral density and if fractures occur, to go for early treatments of osteoporosis.  Increasing awareness among the general public will increase awareness and will be useful in preventing osteoporosis.  

 Always consult your healthcare professionals, doctors or pharmacist for any tips on how to take good care of your bones before it is too late, and if you are diagnosed, to get advice on the management of osteoporosis. 


  1. International Osteoporosis Foundation: IOF. IOF International Osteoporosis Foundation. (2022, August 11). Retrieved August 12, 2022, from
  2. Pouresmaeili, F., Kamali Dehghan, B., Kamarehei, M., & Yong Meng, G. (2018). A comprehensive overview on osteoporosis and its risk factors. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, Volume 14, 2029–2049.
  3. Sozen, T., Ozisik, L., & Calik Basaran, N. (2017). An overview and management of osteoporosis. European Journal of Rheumatology, 4(1), 46–56.  
  4. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Alcohol and other factors affecting osteoporosis risk in women. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism. Retrieved August 8, 2022, from,and%20weakens%20bones’%20mechanical%20properties

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Visual impairment is recognized as one of global significant health problems which have a serious impact on the personal, economic, and social life of an individual. Globally, there are at least 2 billion people who suffer from visual impairment and almost half of these cases could have been addressed and prevented.

Many people can be affected by visual impairments including young children, with causes such as uncorrected refractive errors, cataract, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and many more. In this post we will be looking at types of refractive errors including their common causes and possible ways to prevent them.

What are refractive errors?

Refractive error of the eye is a very common vision problem where the shape of the eye keeps light from focusing on our retina, which is a light sensitive layer of tissue in the back of our eyes. This will prevent us from being able to see clearly and focus on the images from the outside world, resulting in blurred vision.

What are the types of refractive errors?

There are four major types of refractive errors, which are: 

  • Short sightedness, also known as myopia, where close objects are clear but distant objects look blurry. Usually, short sightedness is inherited and often discovered during childhood and it will progress throughout adolescence. Even though short sightedness usually starts in children, it can affect adults as well.
  • Long-sightedness, also known as hyperopia. In contrast to myopia, hyperopia makes nearby objects look blurry. Hyperopia can also be inherited. Children often have hyperopia, which may lessen in adulthood.
  • Presbyopia. Presbyopia happens due to the aging of lenses in the eye, which affect middle-aged or older adults. The lens is more rigid and less flexible, losing its ability to focus images on the retina. Presbyopia causes a person to have trouble seeing things at close range and this is a normal part of aging.
  • Astigmatism. Symptoms of astigmatism are blurry and distorted vision. The clear front layer of our eyes known as cornea is usually smooth and equally curved in all directions. When light enters our eyes through the cornea, it is focused equally on all planes or in all directions. People with astigmatism will have cornea or lenses that are having different shapes than normal resulting in distorted images formed.

Most people will experience one if not more, of these conditions in their lifetimes. 

What are the symptoms and signs of refractive errors?

Blurred vision is the most common symptoms of refractive error, while some people may also experience symptoms such as:

  • Double vision 
  • Squinting 
  • Headaches 
  • Feeling tired and sore of the eyes 
  • Trouble focusing especially looking at computers 
  • Reduced concentration 

However, some people might suffer from refractive errors without even knowing it as they do not have any symptoms. Refractive errors can be detected by an eye care professional during regular eye examination therefore it is important to get eye exams done regularly and start treatment as early as possible. 

What are the risks and causes of refractive errors? 

Several groups of people are more likely to be affected by refractive error such as those with family history of refractive errors and aging. There are also a few environment factors that will increase the risk of refractive errors as well, such as:

  • Long periods of work in front of a digital screen, which will increase digital eye strain. 
  • Spending long hours indoors with inadequate sun exposure. 
  • Inadequate regular sleeping hours. 

The main cause of refractive error is due to the inability of light to focus on our retina and form a clear image, and there are three main factors that affect this focusing ability: 

  • Aging of the lens in the eye that loses flexibility to focus light onto retina.  
  • Eyeballs that are too short or too long to focus light properly. 
  • Abnormalities in the shape of the cornea resulting in distorted images. 

How to prevent refractive errors? 

Although refractive errors of the eye cannot be prevented, it can be managed well through early diagnosis via eye examination. Treatment options may include: 

  • Wearing glasses. Prescription glasses are the safest and simplest way to correct your vision. 
  • Wearing contact lenses. These are worn directly on the eyes to correct your sight, which are more practical while undergoing physical activities as compared to prescription glasses. 
  • Undergo laser eye surgery. Laser eye surgery can reshape the shape of our cornea and make vision clearer. 
  • Undergo intraocular surgery. This type of eye surgery involves an implant of intraocular lens, which is a thin plastic that replaces our natural lens. This new artificial lens is shaped perfectly and will remove any refractive errors. 

See your doctor for eye exams regularly and inform your doctor if your vision gets worse even after treatment. Eating healthily, including the right type vitamins and minerals such as Lutein, fish oils, and  Bilberry that are good for eye health may also help in your eye care.  Also, minimizing screen time to reduce digital eye strain are good habits that should be practiced to maintain eye health as well.  


  1. Refractive errors. Refractive Errors | Kellogg Eye Center | Michigan Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved August 12, 2022, from
  2. Refractive errors: Types, signs, causes, and treatment. (2022, February 26). Retrieved August 15, 2022, from
  3. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (n.d.). Refractive errors. National Eye Institute. Retrieved August 13, 2022, from

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